sarcasm

This hashtag in English

Last updated 17w.

Sarcasm is the use of words usually used to either mock or annoy someone, or for humorous purposes. Sarcasm may employ ambivalence, although it is not necessarily ironic. Most noticeable in spoken word, sarcasm is mainly distinguished by the inflection with which it is spoken and is largely context-dependent.

The word comes from the Greek σαρκασμός (sarkasmós) which is taken from σαρκάζειν (sarkázein) meaning "to tear flesh, bite the lip in rage, sneer".

It is first recorded in English in 1579, in an annotation to The Shepheardes Calender by Edmund Spenser:

Tom piper, an ironicall Sarcasmus, spoken in derision of these rude wits, whych ...

However, the word sarcastic, meaning "Characterized by or involving sarcasm; given to the use of sarcasm; bitterly cutting or caustic", doesn't appear until 1695.

In its entry on irony, Dictionary.com describes sarcasm thus:

In sarcasm, ridicule or mockery is used harshly, often crudely and contemptuously, for destructive purposes. It may be used in an indirect manner, and have the form of irony, as in "What a fine musician you turned out to be!," "It's like you're a whole different person now...," and "Oh... Well then thanks for all the first aid over the years!" or it may be used in the form of a direct statement, "You couldn't play one piece correctly if you had two assistants." The distinctive quality of sarcasm is present in the spoken word and manifested chiefly by vocal inflection ...

Distinguishing sarcasm from banter, and referring to the use of irony in sarcasm, Derek Bousfield writes that sarcasm is:

The use of strategies which, on the surface appear to be appropriate to the situation, but are meant to be taken as meaning the opposite in terms of face management. That is, the utterance which appears, on the surface, to maintain or enhance the face of the recipient actually attacks and damages the face of the recipient. ... sarcasm is an insincere form of politeness which is used to offend one's interlocutor.

17.'Never a truer word said in jest': A Pragmastylistic Analysis of Impoliteness as Banter in Henry IV, Part I, Derek Bousfield (University of Huddersfield, UK)

John Haiman writes: "There is an extremely close connection between sarcasm and irony, and literary theorists in particular often treat sarcasm as simply the crudest and least interesting form of irony." Also, he adds:

First, situations may be ironic, but only people can be sarcastic. Second, people may be unintentionally ironic, but sarcasm requires intention. What is essential to sarcasm is that it is overt irony intentionally used by the speaker as a form of verbal aggression.

While Henry Watson Fowler writes:

Sarcasm does not necessarily involve irony. But irony, or the use of expressions conveying different things according as they are interpreted, is so often made the vehicle of sarcasm ... The essence of sarcasm is the intention of giving pain by (ironical or other) bitter words.

Sarcasm can be making uncertainty seem very certain, in fact, already done and that it was easy to determine.[citation needed]

Professionals in psychology and related fields have long looked upon sarcasm negatively, particularly noting that sarcasm tends to be a maladaptive coping mechanism for those with unresolved anger or frustrations. Psychologist Clifford N. Lazarus describes sarcasm as "hostility disguised as humor". While an occasional sarcastic comment may enliven a conversation, Lazarus suggests that too frequent use of sarcasm tends to "overwhelm the emotional flavor of any conversation".

Understanding the subtlety of this usage requires second-order interpretation of the speaker's or writer's intentions; different parts of the brain must work together to understand sarcasm. This sophisticated understanding can be lacking in some people with certain forms of brain damage, dementia and sometimes autism, and this perception has been located by MRI in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Research has shown that people with damage in the prefrontal cortex have difficulty understanding non-verbal aspects of language like tone, Richard Delmonico, a neuropsychologist at the University of California, Davis, told an interviewer. Such research could help doctors distinguish between different types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, according to David Salmon, a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego.

In William Brant's Critique of Sarcastic Reason, sarcasm is hypothesized to develop as a cognitive and emotional tool that adolescents use in order to test the borders of politeness and truth in conversation. Sarcasm recognition and expression both require the development of understanding forms of language, especially if sarcasm occurs without a cue or signal (e.g., a sarcastic tone or rolling the eyes). Sarcasm is argued to be more sophisticated than lying because lying is expressed as early as the age of three, but sarcastic expressions take place much later during development (Brant, 2012). According to Brant (2012, 145-6), sarcasm is

(a) form of expression of language often including the assertion of a statement that is disbelieved by the expresser (e.g., where the sentential meaning is disbelieved by the expresser), although the intended meaning is different from the sentence meaning. The recognition of sarcasm without the accompaniment of a cue develops around the beginning of adolescence or later. Sarcasm involves the expression of an insulting remark that requires the interpreter to understand the negative emotional connotation of the expresser within the context of the situation at hand. Irony, contrarily, does not include derision, unless it is sarcastic irony. The problems with these definitions and the reason why this dissertation does not thoroughly investigate the distinction between irony and sarcasm involves the ideas that: (1) people can pretend to be insulted when they are not or pretend not to be insulted when they are seriously offended; (2) an individual may feel ridiculed directly after the comment and then find it humorous or neutral thereafter; and (3) the individual may not feel insulted until years after the comment was expressed and considered.

Cultural perspectives on sarcasm vary widely with more than a few cultures and linguistic groups finding it offensive to varying degrees. Thomas Carlyle despised it: "Sarcasm I now see to be, in general, the language of the devil; for which reason I have long since as good as renounced it". Fyodor Dostoyevsky, on the other hand, recognized in it a cry of pain: Sarcasm, he said, was "usually the last refuge of modest and chaste-souled people when the privacy of their soul is coarsely and intrusively invaded." RFC 1855, a collection of guidelines for Internet communications, includes a warning to be especially careful with it as it "may not travel well." Another study of sarcasm over email verifies these claims. A professional translator has advised that international business executives "should generally avoid sarcasm in intercultural business conversations and written communications" because of the difficulties in translating sarcasm.

A 2015 study by L. Huang, F. Gino and A.D. Galinsky of the Harvard Business School "tests a novel theoretical model in which both the construction and interpretation of sarcasm lead to greater creativity because they activate abstract thinking."

In English, sarcasm is often telegraphed with kinesic/prosodic cues by speaking more slowly and with a lower pitch. Similarly, Dutch uses a lowered pitch; sometimes to such an extent that the expression is reduced to a mere mumble. But other research shows that there are many ways that real speakers signal sarcastic intentions. One study found that in Cantonese, sarcasm is indicated by raising the fundamental frequency of one's voice. In Amharic, rising intonation is used to show sarcasm.

Though in the English language there is no standard accepted method to denote irony or sarcasm in written conversation, several forms of punctuation have been proposed. Among the oldest and frequently attested are the percontation point—furthered by Henry Denham in the 1580s—and the irony mark—furthered by Alcanter de Brahm in the 19th century. Both of these marks were represented visually by a ⸮ backwards question mark (unicode U+2E2E). Each of these punctuation marks are primarily used to indicate that a sentence should be understood as ironic, but not necessarily designate sarcasm that is not ironic. By contrast, more recent proposals, such as the snark mark, or the use of a following tilde are specifically intended to denote sarcasm rather than irony. A bracketed exclamation point or question mark as well as scare quotes are also sometimes used to express irony or ironic sarcasm.

In certain Ethiopic languages, sarcasm and unreal phrases are indicated at the end of a sentence with a sarcasm mark called temherte slaq, a character that looks like an inverted exclamation point ¡. The usage directly parallels John Wilkins' 1668 proposal to use the inverted exclamation point as an irony mark. A proposal by Asteraye Tsigie and Daniel Yacob in 1999 to include the temherte slaq in unicode was unsuccessful.

A French company has developed an analytics tool that claims to have up to 80% accuracy in identifying sarcastic comments posted online.

In June 2014, the United States Secret Service requested bids for software that would identify sarcasm in tweets.

In late August 2016, North Korea banned sarcasm against the government. It was reported that the government gave the warnings in mass meetings across the country. Subsequent media reports suggest that North Korea banned sarcasm altogether.

Trump literally acknowledged days later that he was talking about "disinfectant on the inside.” (…
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The tragedy of today's times on @Twitter is no one gets sarcasm or irony...or perhaps very few do...but certainly n…
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Greta Thunberg is anti-national. Infact even climate is anti-national. Keeps wanting to change. (This is sarcasm.…
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So glad they are not playing partisan political “gotcha” games at this important moment for our country facing a de…
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@Bendersilver21 @TimRunsHisMouth @AOC For someone who follows a “comedian” you sure don’t pick up on sarcasm very well 😂
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RT @an_angel_named: ironically, the """movement""" against 'post-modernism' became exactly what it was trying to fight, cynicism, ugliness,…
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@Pvralkitz @fookinhabit @charlieputh lmao you don’t understand sarcasm innit? he’s not talking serious, the only th…
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@M7md_mustafa1 @Sarcasm_Station هو دا الكلام الصح😂😂😂
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@Vivek_Investor This tweet itself #sarcasm
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RT @babygirlsam___: if you complain about how people can't handle your sarcasm, have you considered the fact that you might just be rude
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@TanuLuvShreya Sarcasm game on point
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@ShubhamShandil1 @arunbothra I ain't talking about what he did being right or wrong. If that wasn't a lapse of dipl…
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@ArmThePoor83 @ethnicohioan He said he’d pay in exposure, there was no mention of having no money. But I think my s…
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@mo7med_eladawy @Sarcasm_Station انت كويس ي عشري 😂😂😂
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@rishabh_memes @RVCJ_FB @allindiamemes @BollywoodMemers @EducatedMoron @Sarcasm_Villa @swatic12 🤣🤣
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@karansinghpawar @PunYaab That's more of sarcasm
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@heyy_shibu @sarcasticchokro @RVCJ_FB @iamharshbeniwal @Sarcasm_Villa @allindiamemes @BollywoodMemers @memecentral_teb 😂❤
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@PresidentRogue1 @ACLU It’s not sarcasm, but it was thrown out there to provoke discussion based on the lawsuit.
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@vichitra_duniya @swatic12 @memecentral_teb @YashDwivedi17_ @Sarcasm_Villa @IndianTweetss @allindiamemes…
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@TerryWithWhys @DCist Wow you don’t get sarcasm. It’s noise for a few mins. Get over yourself
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@drlesleybarron Heart failure is really a man’s job 🙄(insert sarcasm here) #Manels
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It's a wonder how half of Bollywood is up in arms to protect democracy after Rihanna's one tweet, but didn't give a…
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Happy Birthday, @RoflGandhi_. Fan of your wit and sarcasm 👍
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RT @BesuraTaansane: @avantikanaidu21 Ha ha-thank you for the kind compliment 🙏🏻🤗 I used to get angry too & argue earlier but soon realised…
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RT @yegor256: How do you increase the retention rate in your team? It's easy: Don’t let them discuss salaries. They must keep this informat…
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@BradleyWhitford I'm disappointed in the level of unity this message conveys... /SARCASM
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I use sarcasm instead of punching you in the face. Don't push it though.
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RT @photon_physics: @Ordinary1World @C_jehnsen_MT Can I have some RTs too? Ya, definitely not above it. Sarcasm only gets one thus far..
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@kuzushikid @creativelytired @ErrolWebber @IlhanMN Still saying don’t know what I talk about but proving nothing, d…
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Awesome. Just awesome. [sarcasm] Our representation everyone!
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Lorenzo is right. But I do understand some of the people's bitterness and frustration. I barely hide my own con…
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@SastaSarcasam @EducatedMoron @theengineerbroo @RVCJ_FB @allindiamemes @Sarcasm_Villa But you realize you have to g…
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RT @livewithnoregrt: when they match your sarcasm >>>
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@lukepaulcarney @robertsessford1 @Ed_Miliband I'm aware of what climate change is,which has beenblown up out of all…
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@dankstinger @memecentral_teb @Sarcasm_Villa @allindiamemes @swatic12
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I no longer care if you notice my sarcasm or not... It's better if you think I'm dumb anyway so I'm blowing your mind when I do deliver 👌🏽
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@sidhasidhansh @memecentral_teb @Sarcasm_Villa @allindiamemes @swatic12
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@dineshwadera Ppl have missed the sarcasm. Or I'm seeing some where there isn't any? 🙆‍♀️🙆‍♀️
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@radishayuan Yea without Yoon there is no sarcasm 😭😭
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@Hayatokaw @Iyervval Sarcasm hain bhai....
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Best Sarcastic Memes of All Time - You Won't Believe How Funny They Are!
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Person: did you cut your hair? Me: no, I just dyed the tips invisible.
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"Somewhere out there there is a tree, tirelessly producing oxygen so you can breathe. I think you owe it an apology." Dr. Gregory House, House MD quotes
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Oh Fuck yesssss
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Sarcasm is an art. If it was a science, I'd have my PhD. Click The Pin For More Funny Quotes. Share the Cheer - Please Re-Pin. #funny #funnyquotes #quotes #quotestoliveby #dailyquote #wittyquotes #oneliner #joke #puns #TheDragonflyChallenge
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Exactly how I feel...
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Jul 1, 2020 14:18
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Jul 1, 2020 14:18
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Jul 1, 2020 14:18
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Jul 1, 2020 14:18
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Nous avons commencé l'année sur les chapeaux de roues ( pas la couleur de cheveux ) mais comme le dit si bien @famousserge l'humour est l'adrénaline de l'optimiste il semble que nous adorons les montagnes russes ( avec des lunettes 3d ) ou le parapente ( a la télé) . . . Video by @failunfailunmefailun . . . . This year began on the starting blocks. Anyway as says @famousserge humour is adrénaline to optimistic ones it seems that we do like russian mountain ans skydiving ( yeah, on tv) . . . . . . #video #funnyvideos #humournoir #memes #fun #laugh #funnymemes #memesdaily #artvideo #hollywood #sarcasm #ironie #sarcasme #vintage #vintagelover #vintagehollywood #agedor #oldmovie #seconddegre #beoptimist #optimiste #magazine #greenandroll #featy
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