rainbow

This hashtag in Japanese

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A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the Sun.

Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer normally sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground, and centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye.

In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it.

In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc. This is caused by the light being reflected twice on the inside of the droplet before leaving it.

A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source. Thus, a rainbow is not an object and cannot be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. Even if an observer sees another observer who seems "under" or "at the end of" a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer.

Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, and no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum, then fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most commonly cited and remembered sequence is Isaac Newton's sevenfold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, remembered by the mnemonic Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain (ROYGBIV).

Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water. These include not only rain, but also mist, spray, and airborne dew.

Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle. Because of this, rainbows are usually seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the Sun. The result is a luminous rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is often visible. It appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours.

The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights. As human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white.

It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required. Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and even secondary arcs can be created fairly easily from a series of overlapping frames.

From above the Earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle. This phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is usually much smaller, covering only 5–20°.

The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow. This is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow.

Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch. Light of second arc is 90% polarised.

A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100. Accordingly, the Munsell colour system (a 20th-century system for numerically describing colours, based on equal steps for human visual perception) distinguishes 100 hues. The apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice.

Newton, who admitted his eyes were not very critical in distinguishing colours, originally (1672) divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet. Later he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale. Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, and the days of the week. Scholars have noted that what Newton regarded at the time as "blue" would today be regarded as cyan, and what Newton called "indigo" would today be considered blue.

The colour pattern of a rainbow is different from a spectrum, and the colours are less saturated. There is spectral smearing in a rainbow owing to the fact that for any particular wavelength, there is a distribution of exit angles, rather than a single unvarying angle. In addition, a rainbow is a blurred version of the bow obtained from a point source, because the disk diameter of the sun (0.5°) cannot be neglected compared to the width of a rainbow (2°). Further red of the first supplementary rainbow overlaps the violet of the primary rainbow, so rather than the final colour being a variant of spectral violet, it is actually a purple. The number of colour bands of a rainbow may therefore be different from the number of bands in a spectrum, especially if the droplets are particularly large or small. Therefore, the number of colours of a rainbow is variable. If, however, the word rainbow is used inaccurately to mean spectrum, it is the number of main colours in the spectrum.

The question of whether everyone sees seven colours in a rainbow is related to the idea of linguistic relativity. Suggestions have been made that there is universality in the way that a rainbow is perceived. However, more recent research suggests that the number of distinct colours observed and what these are called depend on the language that one uses, with people whose language has fewer colour words seeing fewer discrete colour bands.

When sunlight encounters a raindrop, part of the light is reflected and the rest enters the raindrop. The light is refracted at the surface of the raindrop. When this light hits the back of the raindrop, some of it is reflected off the back. When the internally reflected light reaches the surface again, once more some is internally reflected and some is refracted as it exits the drop. (The light that reflects off the drop, exits from the back, or continues to bounce around inside the drop after the second encounter with the surface, is not relevant to the formation of the primary rainbow.) The overall effect is that part of the incoming light is reflected back over the range of 0° to 42°, with the most intense light at 42°. This angle is independent of the size of the drop, but does depend on its refractive index. Seawater has a higher refractive index than rain water, so the radius of a "rainbow" in sea spray is smaller than a true rainbow. This is visible to the naked eye by a misalignment of these bows.

The reason the returning light is most intense at about 42° is that this is a turning point – light hitting the outermost ring of the drop gets returned at less than 42°, as does the light hitting the drop nearer to its centre. There is a circular band of light that all gets returned right around 42°. If the Sun were a laser emitting parallel, monochromatic rays, then the luminance (brightness) of the bow would tend toward infinity at this angle (ignoring interference effects). (See Caustic (optics).) But since the Sun's luminance is finite and its rays are not all parallel (it covers about half a degree of the sky) the luminance does not go to infinity. Furthermore, the amount by which light is refracted depends upon its wavelength, and hence its colour. This effect is called dispersion. Blue light (shorter wavelength) is refracted at a greater angle than red light, but due to the reflection of light rays from the back of the droplet, the blue light emerges from the droplet at a smaller angle to the original incident white light ray than the red light. Due to this angle, blue is seen on the inside of the arc of the primary rainbow, and red on the outside. The result of this is not only to give different colours to different parts of the rainbow, but also to diminish the brightness. (A "rainbow" formed by droplets of a liquid with no dispersion would be white, but brighter than a normal rainbow.)

The light at the back of the raindrop does not undergo total internal reflection, and some light does emerge from the back. However, light coming out the back of the raindrop does not create a rainbow between the observer and the Sun because spectra emitted from the back of the raindrop do not have a maximum of intensity, as the other visible rainbows do, and thus the colours blend together rather than forming a rainbow.

A rainbow does not exist at one particular location. Many rainbows exist; however, only one can be seen depending on the particular observer's viewpoint as droplets of light illuminated by the sun. All raindrops refract and reflect the sunlight in the same way, but only the light from some raindrops reaches the observer's eye. This light is what constitutes the rainbow for that observer. The whole system composed by the Sun's rays, the observer's head, and the (spherical) water drops has an axial symmetry around the axis through the observer's head and parallel to the Sun's rays. The rainbow is curved because the set of all the raindrops that have the right angle between the observer, the drop, and the Sun, lie on a cone pointing at the sun with the observer at the tip. The base of the cone forms a circle at an angle of 40–42° to the line between the observer's head and their shadow but 50% or more of the circle is below the horizon, unless the observer is sufficiently far above the earth's surface to see it all, for example in an aeroplane (see above). Alternatively, an observer with the right vantage point may see the full circle in a fountain or waterfall spray.

It is possible to determine the perceived angle which the rainbow subtends as follows.

Given a spherical raindrop, and defining the perceived angle of the rainbow as 2φ, and the angle of the internal reflection as 2β, then the angle of incidence of the Sun's rays with respect to the drop's surface normal is 2βφ. Since the angle of refraction is β, Snell's law gives us

where n = 1.333 is the refractive index of water. Solving for φ, we get

The rainbow will occur where the angle φ is maximum with respect to the angle β. Therefore, from calculus, we can set / = 0, and solve for β, which yields

Substituting back into the earlier equation for φ yields 2φmax ≈ 42° as the radius angle of the rainbow.

A secondary rainbow, at a greater angle than the primary rainbow, is often visible. The term double rainbow is used when both the primary and secondary rainbows are visible. In theory, all rainbows are double rainbows, but since the secondary bow is always fainter than the primary, it may be too weak to spot in practice.

Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the water droplets. Technically the secondary bow is centred on the sun itself, but since its angular size is more than 90° (about 127° for violet to 130° for red), it is seen on the same side of the sky as the primary rainbow, about 10° outside it at an apparent angle of 50–53°. As a result of the "inside" of the secondary bow being "up" to the observer, the colours appear reversed compared to those of the primary bow.

The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky. Each rainbow reflects white light inside its coloured bands, but that is "down" for the primary and "up" for the secondary. The dark area of unlit sky lying between the primary and secondary bows is called Alexander's band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it.

Unlike a double rainbow that consists of two separate and concentric rainbow arcs, the very rare twinned rainbow appears as two rainbow arcs that split from a single base. The colours in the second bow, rather than reversing as in a secondary rainbow, appear in the same order as the primary rainbow. A "normal" secondary rainbow may be present as well. Twinned rainbows can look similar to, but should not be confused with supernumerary bands. The two phenomena may be told apart by their difference in colour profile: supernumerary bands consist of subdued pastel hues (mainly pink, purple and green), while the twinned rainbow shows the same spectrum as a regular rainbow. The cause of a twinned rainbow is the combination of different sizes of water drops falling from the sky. Due to air resistance, raindrops flatten as they fall, and flattening is more prominent in larger water drops. When two rain showers with different-sized raindrops combine, they each produce slightly different rainbows which may combine and form a twinned rainbow. A numerical ray tracing study showed that a twinned rainbow on a photo could be explained by a mixture of 0.40 and 0.45 mm droplets. That small difference in droplet size resulted in a small difference in flattening of the droplet shape, and a large difference in flattening of the rainbow top.

Meanwhile, the even rarer case of a rainbow split into three branches was observed and photographed in nature.

In theory, every rainbow is a circle, but from the ground, usually only its upper half can be seen. Since the rainbow's centre is diametrically opposed to the Sun's position in the sky, more of the circle comes into view as the sun approaches the horizon, meaning that the largest section of the circle normally seen is about 50% during sunset or sunrise. Viewing the rainbow's lower half requires the presence of water droplets below the observer's horizon, as well as sunlight that is able to reach them. These requirements are not usually met when the viewer is at ground level, either because droplets are absent in the required position, or because the sunlight is obstructed by the landscape behind the observer. From a high viewpoint such as a high building or an aircraft, however, the requirements can be met and the full-circle rainbow can be seen. Like a partial rainbow, the circular rainbow can have a secondary bow or supernumerary bows as well. It is possible to produce the full circle when standing on the ground, for example by spraying a water mist from a garden hose while facing away from the sun.

A circular rainbow should not be confused with the glory, which is much smaller in diameter and is created by different optical processes. In the right circumstances, a glory and a (circular) rainbow or fog bow can occur together. Another atmospheric phenomenon that may be mistaken for a "circular rainbow" is the 22° halo, which is caused by ice crystals rather than liquid water droplets, and is located around the Sun (or Moon), not opposite it.

In certain circumstances, one or several narrow, faintly coloured bands can be seen bordering the violet edge of a rainbow; i.e., inside the primary bow or, much more rarely, outside the secondary. These extra bands are called supernumerary rainbows or supernumerary bands; together with the rainbow itself the phenomenon is also known as a stacker rainbow. The supernumerary bows are slightly detached from the main bow, become successively fainter along with their distance from it, and have pastel colours (consisting mainly of pink, purple and green hues) rather than the usual spectrum pattern. The effect becomes apparent when water droplets are involved that have a diameter of about 1 mm or less; the smaller the droplets are, the broader the supernumerary bands become, and the less saturated their colours. Due to their origin in small droplets, supernumerary bands tend to be particularly prominent in fogbows.

Supernumerary rainbows cannot be explained using classical geometric optics. The alternating faint bands are caused by interference between rays of light following slightly different paths with slightly varying lengths within the raindrops. Some rays are in phase, reinforcing each other through constructive interference, creating a bright band; others are out of phase by up to half a wavelength, cancelling each other out through destructive interference, and creating a gap. Given the different angles of refraction for rays of different colours, the patterns of interference are slightly different for rays of different colours, so each bright band is differentiated in colour, creating a miniature rainbow. Supernumerary rainbows are clearest when raindrops are small and of uniform size. The very existence of supernumerary rainbows was historically a first indication of the wave nature of light, and the first explanation was provided by Thomas Young in 1804.

When a rainbow appears above a body of water, two complementary mirror bows may be seen below and above the horizon, originating from different light paths. Their names are slightly different.

A reflected rainbow may appear in the water surface below the horizon. The sunlight is first deflected by the raindrops, and then reflected off the body of water, before reaching the observer. The reflected rainbow is frequently visible, at least partially, even in small puddles.

A reflection rainbow may be produced where sunlight reflects off a body of water before reaching the raindrops, if the water body is large, quiet over its entire surface, and close to the rain curtain. The reflection rainbow appears above the horizon. It intersects the normal rainbow at the horizon, and its arc reaches higher in the sky, with its centre as high above the horizon as the normal rainbow's centre is below it. Reflection bows are usually brightest when the sun is low because at that time its light is most strongly reflected from water surfaces. As the sun gets lower the normal and reflection bows are drawn closer together. Due to the combination of requirements, a reflection rainbow is rarely visible.

Up to eight separate bows may be distinguished if the reflected and reflection rainbows happen to occur simultaneously: The normal (non-reflection) primary and secondary bows above the horizon (1, 2) with their reflected counterparts below it (3, 4), and the reflection primary and secondary bows above the horizon (5, 6) with their reflected counterparts below it (7, 8).

Occasionally a shower may happen at sunrise or sunset, where the shorter wavelengths like blue and green have been scattered and essentially removed from the spectrum. Further scattering may occur due to the rain, and the result can be the rare and dramatic monochrome or red rainbow.

In addition to the common primary and secondary rainbows, it is also possible for rainbows of higher orders to form. The order of a rainbow is determined by the number of light reflections inside the water droplets that create it: One reflection results in the first-order or primary rainbow; two reflections create the second-order or secondary rainbow. More internal reflections cause bows of higher orders—theoretically unto infinity. As more and more light is lost with each internal reflection, however, each subsequent bow becomes progressively dimmer and therefore increasingly difficult to spot. An additional challenge in observing the third-order (or tertiary) and fourth-order (quaternary) rainbows is their location in the direction of the sun (about 40° and 45° from the sun, respectively), causing them to become drowned in its glare.

For these reasons, naturally occurring rainbows of an order higher than 2 are rarely visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, sightings of the third-order bow in nature have been reported, and in 2011 it was photographed definitively for the first time. Shortly after, the fourth-order rainbow was photographed as well, and in 2014 the first ever pictures of the fifth-order (or quinary) rainbow, located in between the primary and secondary bows, were published. In a laboratory setting, it is possible to create bows of much higher orders. Felix Billet (1808–1882) depicted angular positions up to the 19th-order rainbow, a pattern he called a "rose of rainbows". In the laboratory, it is possible to observe higher-order rainbows by using extremely bright and well collimated light produced by lasers. Up to the 200th-order rainbow was reported by Ng et al. in 1998 using a similar method but an argon ion laser beam.

Tertiary and quaternary rainbows should not be confused with "triple" and "quadruple" rainbows—terms sometimes erroneously used to refer to the—much more common—supernumerary bows and reflection rainbows.

Like most atmospheric optical phenomena, rainbows can be caused by light from the Sun, but also from the Moon. In case of the latter, the rainbow is referred to as a lunar rainbow or moonbow. They are much dimmer and rarer than solar rainbows, requiring the Moon to be near-full in order for them to be seen. For the same reason, moonbows are often perceived as white and may be thought of as monochrome. The full spectrum is present, however, but the human eye is not normally sensitive enough to see the colours. Long exposure photographs will sometimes show the colour in this type of rainbow.

Fogbows form in the same way as rainbows, but they are formed by much smaller cloud and fog droplets that diffract light extensively. They are almost white with faint reds on the outside and blues inside; often one or more broad supernumerary bands can be discerned inside the inner edge. The colours are dim because the bow in each colour is very broad and the colours overlap. Fogbows are commonly seen over water when air in contact with the cooler water is chilled, but they can be found anywhere if the fog is thin enough for the sun to shine through and the sun is fairly bright. They are very large—almost as big as a rainbow and much broader. They sometimes appear with a glory at the bow's centre.

Fog bows should not be confused with ice halos, which are very common around the world and visible much more often than rainbows (of any order), yet are unrelated to rainbows.

A sleetbow forms in the same way as a typical rainbow, with the exception that it occurs when light passes through falling sleet (ice pellets) instead of liquid water. As light passes through the sleet, the light is refracted causing the rare phenomena. These have been documented across United States with the earliest publicly documented and photographed sleetbow being seen in Richmond, Virginia on December 21, 2012. Just like regular rainbows, these can also come in various forms, with a monochrome sleetbow being documented on January 7, 2016 in Valparaiso, Indiana.[citation needed]

The circumzenithal and circumhorizontal arcs are two related optical phenomena similar in appearance to a rainbow, but unlike the latter, their origin lies in light refraction through hexagonal ice crystals rather than liquid water droplets. This means that they are not rainbows, but members of the large family of halos.

Both arcs are brightly coloured ring segments centred on the zenith, but in different positions in the sky: The circumzenithal arc is notably curved and located high above the Sun (or Moon) with its convex side pointing downwards (creating the impression of an "upside down rainbow"); the circumhorizontal arc runs much closer to the horizon, is more straight and located at a significant distance below the Sun (or Moon). Both arcs have their red side pointing towards the Sun and their violet part away from it, meaning the circumzenithal arc is red on the bottom, while the circumhorizontal arc is red on top.

The circumhorizontal arc is sometimes referred to by the misnomer "fire rainbow". In order to view it, the Sun or Moon must be at least 58° above the horizon, making it a rare occurrence at higher latitudes. The circumzenithal arc, visible only at a solar or lunar elevation of less than 32°, is much more common, but often missed since it occurs almost directly overhead.

It has been suggested that rainbows might exist on Saturn's moon Titan, as it has a wet surface and humid clouds. The radius of a Titan rainbow would be about 49° instead of 42°, because the fluid in that cold environment is methane instead of water. Although visible rainbows may be rare due to Titan's hazy skies, infrared rainbows may be more common, but an observer would need infrared night vision goggles to see them.

Droplets (or spheres) composed of materials with different refractive indices than plain water produce rainbows with different radius angles. Since salt water has a higher refractive index, a sea spray bow doesn't perfectly align with the ordinary rainbow, if seen at the same spot. Tiny plastic or glass marbles may be used in road marking as a reflectors to enhance its visibility by drivers at night. Due to a much higher refractive index, rainbows observed on such marbles have a noticeably smaller radius. One can easily reproduce such phenomena by sprinkling liquids of different refractive indices in the air, as illustrated in the photo.

The displacement of the rainbow due to different refractive indices can be pushed to a peculiar limit. For a material with a refractive index larger than 2, there is no angle fulfilling the requirements for the first order rainbow. For example, the index of refraction of diamond is about 2.4, so diamond spheres would produce rainbows starting from the second order, omitting the first order. In general, as the refractive index exceeds a number n+1, where n is a natural number, the critical incidence angle for n times internally reflected rays escapes the domain . This results in a rainbow of the n-th order shrinking to the antisolar point and vanishing.

The classical Greek scholar Aristotle (384–322 BC) was first to devote serious attention to the rainbow. According to Raymond L. Lee and Alistair B. Fraser, "Despite its many flaws and its appeal to Pythagorean numerology, Aristotle's qualitative explanation showed an inventiveness and relative consistency that was unmatched for centuries. After Aristotle's death, much rainbow theory consisted of reaction to his work, although not all of this was uncritical."

In Book I of Naturales Quaestiones (c. 65 AD), the Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger discusses various theories of the formation of rainbows extensively, including those of Aristotle. He notices that rainbows appear always opposite to the Sun, that they appear in water sprayed by a rower, in the water spat by a fuller on clothes stretched on pegs or by water sprayed through a small hole in a burst pipe. He even speaks of rainbows produced by small rods (virgulae) of glass, anticipating Newton's experiences with prisms. He takes into account two theories: one, that the rainbow is produced by the Sun reflecting in each water drop, the other, that it is produced by the Sun reflected in a cloud shaped like a concave mirror; he favours the latter. He also discusses other phenomena related to rainbows: the mysterious "virgae" (rods), halos and parhelia.

According to Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir, the Arab physicist and polymath Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965–1039), attempted to provide a scientific explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. In his Maqala fi al-Hala wa Qaws Quzah (On the Rainbow and Halo), al-Haytham "explained the formation of rainbow as an image, which forms at a concave mirror. If the rays of light coming from a farther light source reflect to any point on axis of the concave mirror, they form concentric circles in that point. When it is supposed that the sun as a farther light source, the eye of viewer as a point on the axis of mirror and a cloud as a reflecting surface, then it can be observed the concentric circles are forming on the axis."[citation needed] He was not able to verify this because his theory that "light from the sun is reflected by a cloud before reaching the eye" did not allow for a possible experimental verification. This explanation was repeated by Averroes,[citation needed] and, though incorrect, provided the groundwork for the correct explanations later given by Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī in 1309 and, independently, by Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250–c. 1311)[citation needed]—both having studied al-Haytham's Book of Optics.

Ibn al-Haytham's contemporary, the Persian philosopher and polymath Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna; 980–1037), provided an alternative explanation, writing "that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror. Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the colour formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye." This explanation, however, was also incorrect.[citation needed] Ibn Sīnā's account accepts many of Aristotle's arguments on the rainbow.

In Song Dynasty China (960–1279), a polymath scholar-official named Shen Kuo (1031–1095) hypothesised—as a certain Sun Sikong (1015–1076) did before him—that rainbows were formed by a phenomenon of sunlight encountering droplets of rain in the air. Paul Dong writes that Shen's explanation of the rainbow as a phenomenon of atmospheric refraction "is basically in accord with modern scientific principles."

According to Nader El-Bizri, the Persian astronomer, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), gave a fairly accurate explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. This was elaborated on by his student, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī (1267–1319), who gave a more mathematically satisfactory explanation of the rainbow. He "proposed a model where the ray of light from the sun was refracted twice by a water droplet, one or more reflections occurring between the two refractions." An experiment with a water-filled glass sphere was conducted and al-Farisi showed the additional refractions due to the glass could be ignored in his model. As he noted in his Kitab Tanqih al-Manazir (The Revision of the Optics), al-Farisi used a large clear vessel of glass in the shape of a sphere, which was filled with water, in order to have an experimental large-scale model of a rain drop. He then placed this model within a camera obscura that has a controlled aperture for the introduction of light. He projected light unto the sphere and ultimately deduced through several trials and detailed observations of reflections and refractions of light that the colours of the rainbow are phenomena of the decomposition of light.

In Europe, Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics was translated into Latin and studied by Robert Grosseteste. His work on light was continued by Roger Bacon, who wrote in his Opus Majus of 1268 about experiments with light shining through crystals and water droplets showing the colours of the rainbow. In addition, Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow. He stated that the rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42° above the horizon. Theodoric of Freiberg is known to have given an accurate theoretical explanation of both the primary and secondary rainbows in 1307. He explained the primary rainbow, noting that "when sunlight falls on individual drops of moisture, the rays undergo two refractions (upon ingress and egress) and one reflection (at the back of the drop) before transmission into the eye of the observer." He explained the secondary rainbow through a similar analysis involving two refractions and two reflections.

Descartes' 1637 treatise, Discourse on Method, further advanced this explanation. Knowing that the size of raindrops did not appear to affect the observed rainbow, he experimented with passing rays of light through a large glass sphere filled with water. By measuring the angles that the rays emerged, he concluded that the primary bow was caused by a single internal reflection inside the raindrop and that a secondary bow could be caused by two internal reflections. He supported this conclusion with a derivation of the law of refraction (subsequently to, but independently of, Snell) and correctly calculated the angles for both bows. His explanation of the colours, however, was based on a mechanical version of the traditional theory that colours were produced by a modification of white light.

Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light was composed of the light of all the colours of the rainbow, which a glass prism could separate into the full spectrum of colours, rejecting the theory that the colours were produced by a modification of white light. He also showed that red light is refracted less than blue light, which led to the first scientific explanation of the major features of the rainbow. Newton's corpuscular theory of light was unable to explain supernumerary rainbows, and a satisfactory explanation was not found until Thomas Young realised that light behaves as a wave under certain conditions, and can interfere with itself.

Young's work was refined in the 1820s by George Biddell Airy, who explained the dependence of the strength of the colours of the rainbow on the size of the water droplets. Modern physical descriptions of the rainbow are based on Mie scattering, work published by Gustav Mie in 1908. Advances in computational methods and optical theory continue to lead to a fuller understanding of rainbows. For example, Nussenzveig provides a modern overview.

Experiments on the rainbow phenomenon using artificial raindrops, i.e. water-filled spherical flasks, go back at least to Theodoric of Freiberg in the 14th century. Later, also Descartes studied the phenomenon using a Florence flask. A flask experiment known as Florence's rainbow is still often used today as an imposing and intuitively accessible demonstration experiment of the rainbow phenomenon. It consists in illuminating (with parallel white light) a water-filled spherical flask through a hole in a screen. A rainbow will then appear thrown back / projected on the screen, provided the screen is large enough. Due to the finite wall thickness and the macroscopic character of the artificial raindrop, several subtle differences exist as compared to the natural phenomenon, including slightly changed rainbow angles and a splitting of the rainbow orders.

A very similar experiment consists in using a cylindrical glass vessel filled with water or a solid transparent cylinder and illuminated either parallel to the circular base (i.e. light rays remaining at a fixed height while they transit the cylinder) or under an angle to the base. Under these latter conditions the rainbow angles change relative to the natural phenomenon since the effective index of refraction of water changes (Bravais' index of refraction for inclined rays applies).

Other experiments use small liquid drops, see text above.

Rainbows occur frequently in mythology, and have been used in the arts. One of the earliest literary occurrences of a rainbow is in the Book of Genesis chapter 9, as part of the flood story of Noah, where it is a sign of God's covenant to never destroy all life on Earth with a global flood again. In Norse mythology, the rainbow bridge Bifröst connects the world of men (Midgard) and the realm of the gods (Asgard). Cuchavira was the god of the rainbow for the Muisca in present-day Colombia and when the regular rains on the Bogotá savanna were over, the people thanked him offering gold, snails and small emeralds. Some forms of Tibetan Buddhism or Dzogchen reference a rainbow body. The Irish leprechaun's secret hiding place for his pot of gold is usually said to be at the end of the rainbow. This place is appropriately impossible to reach, because the rainbow is an optical effect which cannot be approached.

Rainbows appear in heraldry - in heraldry the rainbow proper consists of 4 bands of color (Or, Gules, Vert, Argent) with the ends resting on clouds. Generalised examples in coat of arms include those of the towns of Regen and Pfreimd, both in Bavaria, Germany; and of Bouffémont, France; and of the 69th Infantry Regiment (New York) of the Army National Guard (USA).

Rainbow flags have been used for centuries. It was a symbol of the Cooperative movement in the German Peasants' War in the 16th century, of peace in Italy, and of gay pride and LGBT social movements since the 1970s. In 1994, Archbishop Desmond Tutu and President Nelson Mandela described newly democratic post-apartheid South Africa as the rainbow nation. The rainbow has also been used in technology product logos, including the Apple computer logo. Many political alliances spanning multiple political parties have called themselves a "Rainbow Coalition".

Подумаешь не рассчитал, забыл главное правило путешествий во времени, с кем не бывает «Всегда изучай эпоху в котору…
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спасибо хоть наручники уже изобретены, меньше трут руки, единственная, блин, радость в одиночной камере.-> Подумаеш…
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テレビはクロ現、スマホはレコメン!
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Вот уже лет двадцать прошло с последнего случая. Теперь этот "последний случай" будет за ним. Не так он хотел попас…
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–Свали, Иван займёт твой пост,– сиплый голос командующего будто пылью оседает в создании. Действительно новая смена…
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, Гилберт на свой страх, риск и просто "почесать самолюбие и гордость" нагло оглядывает мужчину.Высокий, широк в пл…
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только страшнее. Задумавшись он даже пропускает первый удар, действительно сильный, но...странный? Что-то не так, л…
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но Гилбер находит силы заговорить. Как и в прошлые разы, сначала он всегда отвечает правду. Правду в которую ещё ни…
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– Ага, я знаю, – внезапно отвечают ему, – Иван Брагинский, журналист и по совместительству спасатель таких потеряше…
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@Rainbow_Luce Very beautiful photos
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Иван протягивает руку, а Гил еле сдерживается чтобы не броситься тому с на шею с объятиями. Тело ноет, в камере нет…
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最好玩的🏳‍🌈彩虹音樂節🏳‍🌈就在台北! X-FORMOSA 2020 Music Festival 10/30 FRI✨BLACK CHUMBO 10/31 SAT✨RAINBOW HorroR WeeK 11/01 SUN✨…
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Even a raven contains within its blackness a whole spectrum, a whole rainbow, a chord of black.
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The other night calum & I were out in the desert and we saw a fricken moon rainbow. Here’s my reaction 😂
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【発売中!📖】 素顔のフォトエッセイシリーズ02 Rainbow Days~彼方・エマ・璃奈~が発売中!🌈 メンバー達が正直な気持ちを綴る本シリーズは、描き下ろしイラスト満載&テキスト全て書き下ろし✨ ここでしか見られないメン…
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Soaking in those rainbow colours ✨ #JB #JasminBhasin
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Simply retweet for your chance to win a signed @SANTINI_SMS rainbow jersey by @mathieuvdpoel and @lucinda_brand !…
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@cloudedb Rainbow
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RT @aDrive_tK: 🌈🐟GIVEAWAY! Rainbow Wishiwashi GX giveaway! ♻️Retweet 👉Follow 🙋‍♂️Tag a friend ⏱Follow me on Tiktok!
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@Gamer194_GALyM Breakpoint el evento de Rainbow Six Siege
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RT @Fact: Everyone wants happiness. No one wants pain. But you can't have a rainbow, without a little rain.
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@Sizuku_rainbow おはよぉ
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@PrincessRowen Love the rainbow hair 🤸‍♀️
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@LARRYKlWl rainbow dash
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RT @Christianek_H: (RT's appreciated!) My shop is live with brand new riso prints, original watercolor paintings, ink drawings, and more! A…
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@CahRonShooM it does? the flags as meanings like any other flag youre copying a flag that does not belong to you ..…
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@Mozhan10tae لطف عالی متعالی مشتی📿🤜🏻😘
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My shop~ Antillique’s horns:30k Cozy set(hat and gloves):20k Rainbow high tops:20k Huggly snuggly boots:5k EH skir…
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@Gjing_superman Song choice💀
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RT @onlythearctic: Yes the lighting in the art for Perfect Now is indeed in rainbow colours but it's been bleaked by the editing of LTHQ 😁…
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What a fantastic rare phenomenon captured in Italy! 😯 #LunaCorona (when light is split by water particles in the ai…
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RT @nanndeyanenn66: 呪術本誌勢で地獄みてるみんなー!!!!!!! an・anに悠仁と五条の描き下ろしイラストが載るぞーー!!!!!!!! #呪術廻戦 #本誌
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Check out my broadcast from my PlayStation 4! #PS4live (Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six® Siege) live at
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RT @sunbathed_: repeat after me: sometimes, in kpop stylists' opinion rainbow pin is nothing more than a rainbow pin, I would like to remin…
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Rainbow mountain in Peru 🌈
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RT @ravenmaster1: Even a raven contains within its blackness a whole spectrum, a whole rainbow, a chord of black.
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RT @modelinblack: Hey I’m Honesty💕 &I have my own business called Rainbow Collections selling affordable & great quality Accessories , Lash…
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@kusuonwl @Lblue_Rainbow @BTS_twt Vas a la sección fotos apretas el signo + y te la opción de subir una foto, o con…
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RT @earth: Rainbow mountain in Peru 🌈
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m032 REQUEST @arashi5official @MTV #FridayLivestream Please play "Turning Up" by ARASHI. I can't wait the show.…
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ha terakhir main tumblr pas umur masih 23.
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RT @letterstosun: no les pasa que jisung es un rainbow es la cosita más linda del mundo es un best boy , rapper, todo lo bueno está con el…
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@rainbow_way_v 프랑스 분이신가요??
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@hanshorsemaskk @lixssunshinee han jisung beautiful han jisung handsome han jisung rainbow han jisung stunning han…
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#OraInOnda ☞ Pure Music ⇆ Radio Rainbow New Italia ☞ Su Radio Rainbow New Italia 🌈 ☞ Seguici su…
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ZEPPELIN ROCK: RAINBOW - Difficult to Cure (1981): CRÍTICA Review
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RT @onjolkaa: han jisung beautiful han jisung handsome han jisung rainbow han jisung stunning han jisung amazing han jisung precious han ji…
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RT @minhoharto: Me ayudaste y me salvaste, tu música me ha acompañado y hecho sentir mejor cuando todo alrededor se caía. Gracias. Han Jis…
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RT @GraemeK73: To mark LGBT+ History month @UofGlasgow is today flying the Rainbow flag. Helping to promote equality in a world class envir…
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RT @TorontoStar: .@BrandonAMcomedy is changing the face of Toronto comedy. The Ethnic Rainbow producer, podcaster and standup star on how h…
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RT @seoktr: Vote for J-Hope on FAN N STAR! there's an ongoing birthday project for j-hope where we need to donate stars for birthday ads. Y…
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RT @earth: Rainbow mountain in Peru 🌈
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〈春名真依(たこやきレインボー)に関するご報告とお詫び〉 〈たこやきレインボーの今後の活動について〉
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RT @TheWrap: No political event or person is really of the moment until @RandyRainbow uploads one of his musical theater tributes about the…
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RT @mochiplanet: #bingqiuweek2019 day 4: modern AU 🌃🥂 trying a different modern bingqiu design based on chapter 4 of "Emerald and Jade" by…
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RT @esportv: Six Invitational 2021 é suspenso por conta da pandemia de Covid-19
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RT @lilveggieangel: rainbow butterfly sun-catchers are on sale $8 off today 🦋🌞🌈
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RT @_chloeswarbrick: I adore that we’re getting a Progress Pride flag painted across Karangahape Rd. Now when politicians have “no position…
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@walkers_crisps 18 Rainbow candle, Globe, Dog statue, Rug, Shelves, Radio, Pink Bird Polaroid Camera, Atari Games c…
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RT @crystalmoon1ba: For Sale / Best Offer: Polished Crystal Clear #Phenacite (rainbow) under #Apophyllite #Pyramid #SterlingSilver #Wirewra…
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RT @evornithology: 90s goalkeepers as birds 🧵 David Seaman/Rainbow Lorikeet (📷 Mat Gilfedder)
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@Lblue_Rainbow @BTS_twt reyes de la industria siempre #KCA #VoteDynamite @BTS_twt
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RT @ccstudioltd: 🌈 what’s that? it’s a mystery pendant 🌈 rainbow moonstone wrapped in silver 🤍 i still have two more mystery pendant lis…
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@goodridgeAFC87 I know right already had that for lunch today 🤣
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that rainbow pass so sweeeeet
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RT @radicalenergies: Lil rainbow moonstone longneck pendant waiting to be antiqued and polished
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チングの夢にジミン氏出てきたと聞いて私は嬉しいぞよ。 QOL勝手に私が上がった。良かった。赤飯持ってく。
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Randy Rocks. SEASONS OF TRUMP - A Randy Rainbow Song Parody via @YouTube
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#OraInOnda ☞ Dandole ⇆ Nicola Fasano Y Dual Beat Florida Y Jaykay ☞ Su Radio Rainbow New Italia 🌈 ☞ Seguici su…
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🎶🎵💕🎶 Eva Cassidy - Over The Rainbow | Eva Cassidy via @YouTube
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RT @Zairyn_08: @Lblue_Rainbow @BTS_twt Votooo  ִֶָ     #KCA #VoteDynamite @BTS_twt
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RT @evornithology: 90s goalkeepers as birds 🧵 David Seaman/Rainbow Lorikeet (📷 Mat Gilfedder)
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㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 2021.3.17 Release💿 特設サイトにて詳細情報を解禁!!!!!!! #オメデトWEST #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう…
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㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 rainboW 公式Twitterも始動🐣 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2月5日はジャニーズWEST結成記念日
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㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST…
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 アルバムリード曲! 「Rainbow Chaser(Short Ver.)」を宇宙初解禁👽🎉 聴いて頂けましたか? #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #レコメン #七色の世界塗…
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2…
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2…
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@97eilish Apple jack y rainbow
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i saw the cutest rainbow in the sky for the first time in a looong time today i literally feel so good rn
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RT @ModestSovereign: Please help. I'm an unemployed photojournalist. My camera broke so I can't seek employment without it. Please support…
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ああ起きてもちゃんと特設サイトもあるし試聴もトレーラーもあるしTLでも確認できるしrainboWの発売は夢じゃないんだな……ほう……………はあ…………
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ジャニーズWESTさん7周年おめでとうございます!!!!!!! 7周年のrainboW、コンセプトが過去一で好き🌈 #rainboWEST #オメデトWEST
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RT @otenkinori: レコメン! ジャニーズWEST 3月17日 7枚目のフルアルバム「rainboW」発売ですぜ! #レコメン
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 アルバムリード曲! 「Rainbow Chaser(Short Ver.)」を宇宙初解禁👽🎉 聴いて頂けましたか? #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #レコメン #七色の世界塗…
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2…
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@_photex_ @Atrix256 Diffraction around the edges of barriers in light is a very small effect - it's why we say "lig…
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RT @protection_skz: ‼️SEARCHES‼️ 🧼🔎 stray kids radiant 🔗 stray kids rainbow 🔗 stray kids reac…
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RT @otenkinori: レコメン! ジャニーズWEST 3月17日 7枚目のフルアルバム「rainboW」発売ですぜ! #レコメン
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RT @donatadesignco: i am speechless 💍♡ • rainbow moonstone rose gold ring from @lilaclilyjewels ♡
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2…
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RT @WEareWEST7: ㊗️7th ALBUM『rainboW』発売決定🌈 特設サイトにて「Rainbow Chaser」視聴開始!!!!!!! Short Movieのトレーラーも解禁🎬 #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう #2…
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💣💥¡#sixinvitational2021 cancelado! 💥💣 A muuuy poco tiempo de que empezara toda la acción del torneo,…
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@Leo96Reyes We need more champions path the homie at empire is getting VV Boxes for 200 I feeling that rainbow vmax chunkychu
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¡Echa un vistazo a mi transmisión desde mi PlayStation 4! #PS4live (Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six® Siege) live at
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RT @Dreamiiiiie_: Rainbow Lance 🌈 #BalanWonderworld
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RT @ATEEZvotestream: [🗳] FAN N STAR Yunho has been nominated in the March birthday poll. The top 3 will get a birthday ad! Go to FAN N…
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RT @Nico1a_: Here is a timelapse showing half of a rainbow(s) over Milton Keynes this afternoon @LondonSnowWatch @scenesfromMK
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RT @DarwaArts: I'm gonna attain Super Saiyan God Rainbow 1 Million before @LemonJooJoo and @PseudoCel
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RT @teteangoel_: Jisung radiant el amor de mí vida, jisung rainbow te amo mucho, jisung rapper es la personita más hermosa y merece mucho a…
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RT @DragonflyR1975: Send a little Rainbow 🌈 Hug in the post to your faves you can easily personalise your message o…
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RT @Lazy_Work_Horse: Gonna finally show my Dash obsession, enjoy a rainbow horse who doesn't like attention but secretly loves it
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@yutiyuti223 ゆちさん おはようございます😃 濃厚チーズケーキ って最高ですよね🤭 え、何これ、めっちゃ凄いやん‼ って言いながら 一瞬で平らげてしまいました(笑) もっとゆっくり食べればよかった💦
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RT @yayayayayanagi: ご縁あって #ジャニーズWEST のアルバムに「春じゃなくても」という楽曲を提供させて頂きました。 久々の楽曲提供。作詞曲。 しかも何やらアルバムの一曲目に収録されるようで…!光栄です! あなたが楽しい気持ちになってくれたらそれが嬉し…
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最後の受験😤😤😤😤 頑張ります💪💪
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RT @GillPrincePhoto: Wow! Stunning double #rainbow over #MiltonKeynes just now 🙂 Shame I didn't have a more interesting foreground! Hope so…
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@nizigaku05_30 もう…💧
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s095 REQUEST @arashi5official @MTV #FridayLivestream Please play "Turning Up" by ARASHI. ARASHI Discography Alb…
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NEVER BEEN SO DEFENCELESS
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Our @AmyKinLA had a video chat with Alan Kim, the adorable 9-year-old breakout star in @MinariMovie. He told us he…
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On this day in 1950, Bob Daisley of Rainbow, Ozzy, Gary Moore & Yngwie is born in Sydney, Australia.
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Sign the petition: Amend the Human Rights Act to end discrimination towards our Rainbow Whānau #NZGreens
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RT @awslando: LSVSLSHSOSBS RAINBOW
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@Sizuku_rainbow かわいしぎる…
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RT @discoverearth_: Rainbow Mountain — Peru 🌈 📷 emmett_sparling
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@Amit_Lolita 実は数日前に同じサバでご一緒させていただきました('ω')ノ またご一緒できると嬉しいであります(^ω^)♪
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RT @goodwitchorgnls: Gentle love 💕 rainbow obsidian brings helps you to recognize your true strengths. Link below!
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Don’t ever try having a serious conversation with @neilnoelniall about decorating and subtle colour choice. It’s li…
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@winterfly_7 آره ایده قشنگیه✨💫ممنون
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派手髪ピアスメンズスーツで教採の面接行ってみたくはある
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@Sizuku_rainbow _(:3」∠)_←
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RT @lopez_vallet: After a hurricane comes a rainbow. #14F
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@WTrouble22 HAPPY VALENTINES FROM OUR PRECIOUS RAINBOW! 🌈
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@Wmomo_jojo しちゃう…rainboW生で見たいな🥺
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@773_O2 @kanatsuguu @xx__1996_ @_1__4__ @haku_xx_ @tsubara_3 @L_u_OwO_K_a @Mo__turi0 @Rakukuku___ @Octopus939…
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RT @HausofHilton: Rule no. 58 : Be a rainbow in someone’s cloud.
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That moment you're writing the promise of the premise & you can't stop grinning and cackling with every fibre of yo…
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いくちゃんww #乃木坂工事中
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RT @ronic17: Fast & Firm $200,000 Jackpot Guarantee in the Rainbow 6 Here's the Valentine's Day Early Scratches: 1. 12,14 #13 runs 2. 1,…
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Love is... having different colors for different people. Featuring More Than Peach multicultural and rainbow crayo…
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I hate writing bad reviews, but don't take your pets to Rainbow vet in Burbank. I just got back from urgent care b…
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初回盤Aに収録される「Rainbow Chaser」 Short MovieのTrailerをYouTubeで公開🌈 #RainbowChaser #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう
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RT @WEareWEST7: 初回盤Aに収録される「Rainbow Chaser」 Short MovieのTrailerをYouTubeで公開🌈 #RainbowChaser #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう
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지금 자리 여쭤보시는 분들 ㅂㄴㅅ이랑 ㅇㅈ랑 섞여서 너무 어지러워 ㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋ 아냐 사실 안 웃겨.. ( ᵕ̩̩ㅅᵕ̩̩ )
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RT @ChinaDaily: #GlamorChina Like a rainbow in the mountains, this bridge hangs hundreds of meters above the deep valley in Shennongjia, Ch…
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RT @kapi_taku: 虹!! うっすらだけど上にもあるから 二重の虹!&Catch The Rainbow! めちゃめちゃ綺麗に見えた!
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RT @WEareWEST7: 初回盤Aに収録される「Rainbow Chaser」 Short MovieのTrailerをYouTubeで公開🌈 #RainbowChaser #ジャニーズWEST #rainboWEST #七色の世界塗りかえよう
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RT @umiinukabu: rainbow🌈🌈
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雨上がりにDouble Rainbow
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RT @makkums: jeno’s room.. on one hand it screams BOY, with all the biking gear, gaming chair & pc (complete with rainbow keyboard). on the…
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業界内指名率が高い俳優重岡大毅の泣きの演技が見られるのはジャニーズWEST結成7周年にして7枚目のフルアルバムrainboW初回限定盤Aです!!!!!!!!!!!! よろしくおねがいします!!!!!!! !!!!…
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本日作業終了! 現場屋内からでたら 🌈🌈🌈🌈🌈🌈🌈 Rainbowが…(*^^*)😊🎶 帰旅館して、酒飲もっと🤪
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When I boarded the plane, a rainbow appeared after a whole weekend of rain! So symbolic... 虹に向かって ( ^∀^) ✈️ 🌈
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雨降り地固まる。 朝からの雨も止み、青空とともに『虹』が現れたのでおすそ分け◎ 『虹』は幸運のサイン!だそうで、皆さんに何か良いことがありますように🙏 #虹 #見せたいのは質でなく虹 #Rainbow #韻遊び…
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RT @mn_fm857: おっきなダブルレインボー🌈 #虹 #ダブルレインボー #rainbow
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RT @GFRD_onSpotify: GFRIEND Albums with 30M+ Streams on Spotify • 回:Walpurgis Night — 60.5M • Flower Bud — 50.2M • Rainbow — 41.2M • Snow…
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@uhxlJsB5w2bE80Y みなさんの虹の写真がリツイートで来てさらにリツイートで虹が増えていく〜🌈✨🌈✨🌈 やっぱり虹はいい〜!!!!!!! 心が晴れるし笑顔になる♪ #rainboW とか #RainbowChaser とか付けてるのもほんと嬉しい💕
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Over The Rainbow🌈Part3(0215) Part1&2の時の虹が殆ど消えていってしまい、巨大虹鑑賞終了!と、ベランダから部屋に戻った。そして撮った写真をチェックしながらふと窓の外を見たら何と虹が復活!していて、今…
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vote for me best rainbow dash stan because im fucking awesome
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Colossal | Art, design, and visual culture.
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rainbow
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have you high-fived a rainbow today? now is your chance. More
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Enter the inspiring "Old Hollywood" world and become one of your icons!
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Paint With Diamonds offers the best Diamond Painting Kits in the world. Full canvas square Diamond Painting Kits come with a full toolkit and 100% satisfaction guarantee. Choose from over 3,000 designs. Trust the original Paint With Diamonds, #1 in customer satisfaction. 4.3/5 stars based on over 2,500 opinions.
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Today was the last day of school for my kids. My son “graduated” 3rd grade and my daughter “graduated” 6th grade. No cap and gown, but in the spirit of the season, I thought it would be fun to make these adorable Graduation Cap Cupcakes. No baking necessary. I used all store bought ingredients for …
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Vibrant Rainbow Roads Illuminate Forests and River Bends Into Magical Landscapes
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Sanatçı, Rainbows'ta Resimleri Kapar Herşey Renkli Bir Lekeyle Daha İyidir
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Mr. Kate - Dream Butterfly Bedroom & Rainbow Playroom for Elle and Alaia
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Rainbow | Arc-en-ciel | Arcobaleno | レインボー | Regenbogen | Радуга | Colours | Texture | Style | Form |
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This is a video tutorial on how to make Gabi the frog from the movie Rio 2 on a SINGLE Rainbow Loom. Description from cep911.com. I searched for this on bing.com/images
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<3
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New York Artist Covers Everything In Rainbow Colors Gets Amazing Results.
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Vivid Rainbow Roads Trace Illuminated Pathways Across Forests and Beaches | Colossal
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rainbow
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Rainbow art print | We love the simplicity and colours!
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Paint With Diamonds offers the best Diamond Painting Kits in the world. Full canvas square Diamond Painting Kits come with a full toolkit and 100% satisfaction guarantee. Choose from over 3,000 designs. Trust the original Paint With Diamonds, #1 in customer satisfaction. 4.3/5 stars based on over 2,500 opinions.
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have you high-fived a rainbow today? now is your chance. More
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.
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Rainbow Origami Wall Art
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A rainbow tunnel in London's King's Cross station. This tunnel has changing lights and is a great place to take pictures. Click through for more pictures on the A Lady in London blog. #london #kingscross #tunnel #rainbow
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Du möchtest Cookies wie bei Subway selber machen? Dann habe ich hier ein Rezept für Rainbow Cookies, also Cookies mit M&Ms für dich! Die perfekten chewy Cookies im American Style | BackIna.de
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Farbenfrohe Rainbow Buddha Bowl vollgepackt mit gesunden Zutaten wie Süßkartoffeln, Linsen, Brokkoli, Möhren und Paprika. Gaumenfreundin Foodblog #buddhabowl #bowl #rezept #vegetarisch #schnell #süßkartoffeln #lowcarb
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Wunderschön
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Vegane Rainbow Lasagne mit frischem Gemüse #rezept #einfach #gesund
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Rainbow
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Rezept idee für Regenbogenkekse - ideal für das Regenbogenfest und auch als kleines, selbst gemachtes Mitgebsel
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Ein bisschen Regenbogen. Ich mag Regenbögen aber nur streifen ist langweilig. Das bunt gemischte in unterschiedlichen Formen.
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Animals: The Magnificent Rainbow Makeover Edition - I Can Has Cheezburger?
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rainbow Pinterest Ideas
  • rainbow cake
  • rainbow baby announcement
  • rainbow hair
  • rainbow birthday party
  • rainbow nails
  • rainbow aesthetic
  • rainbow wallpaper
Aug 21, 2020 20:21
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Unicorns be like: • • • • • #aesthetics #girl #photoshop #art #beautiful #instagood #like4like #follow4follow #ifollowback #instalike #instafollow #like #photooftheday #instacool #picoftheday #portrait #bestoftheday #humanization #инстаграмнедели #creative #photo #horror #dark #macabre #surreal #unicorn #rainbow #fantasy #rainbowblood
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#horror #picoftheday #bestoftheday #photooftheday #instafollow
Aug 25, 2020 17:15
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Match your fav Sneakers with our new Pastell-Series Socks 🧦
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Aug 25, 2020 18:08
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🚨🚨🚨🚨GIVEAWAY-CLOSED🚨🚨🚨🚨 Thank you so much for your support guys ❤️ To give you back a little bit, we teamed up with @allabove.store for a special Giveaway. We give away 3 Packs of our wonderful Tie-Dye Socks from the earth Series made by us including the perfect matching #allabovelaces . This means: You can Win: 1 of the 3 Packs, in the End we will have 3 Winners. So with your entry you have 3 chances to get 1 Pair #allabovelaces and the #tiedye Socks. Sounds good? Yes it is! To Participate you only have to follow 3 Simple Steps: 1. follow @allabove.store & @raccoon.customs 2. like this picture 3. tag a friend (if you like us😊) This Giveaway is only for EU Located People, if your not Located in the EU please don‘t participate. The Giveaway starts from now and will end on Friday 29.08.20 at 15:00 CET. Winners will be chosen by a random generator and Notified with a direct message from us on Friday evening. The Winners will be also shown in our Stories, please only participate if you agree with this. The first picked winner can choose first his Pair of Socks and Laces, then the second and the third gets the one thats left. On the 2nd Picture you can see the available Prices. Facebook, Instagram or Nike have nothing to do with this Giveaway. 🍀🍀🍀 Good Luck 🍀🍀🍀
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#tiedye #allabovelaces
Sep 8, 2020 18:04
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Which sneaker is your favorite sneaker? 👟 ONE of our fave sneaks is this AF1 combined with our Earth-Tone socks 🧦
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Sep 9, 2020 17:47
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🌈 styling’ at Rainbow Hotel Casino. What a coincidence? No? #rainbowhair #rainbow #rainbowbaby #melaninqueen #melanin #braids #braidstyles #braidstylesforwomen #braidstylist #coloredbraids #yourfavewannabefamousgirl 😂
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#rainbowhair #melaninqueen #braids #rainbowbaby #braidstylesforwomen
Sep 10, 2020 06:11
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#colorful #fun #happyface #smile #cute #things #rainbow 🌈 #drawings on #clear #acrylicnails #shade #gelnails #nailart #naildesigns #nailsofinstagram #nails💅 #nailsnailsnails #nailshop #nailhanquoc #miniroom #september 😁💕✨☔️🌸💜❤️🧡💙💚
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#cute #fun #miniroom #gelnails #drawings
Sep 10, 2020 12:06
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You are my favourite place to visit when my mind Searches for some donuts and coffee😁 . . . Location : @dunkinindia 📍 . . . Cost for 2 : 500/- (approx.) . . Keep Supporting : @foodielicious_head🦄 . . . #foodielicious_head #foodielicioushead #cakesicles #foodblogger #dessert #dunkin #donuts #coffee #shake #instafood #hashbrowns #strawberry #dunkindonutscoffee #mumbai #goa #pune #dunkinindia #india #love #cake #cakestagram #sugar #coffeedate #rainbow #darkchocolate #bangalore #travel #yum #sprinkles #café
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#love #pune #sprinkles #instafood #dunkinindia
Sep 10, 2020 12:55
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#石田商店#IshidaShouten#虹#最終夜#USS静岡 へ 🌈この後またすぐゴロピカドン‼︎⚡️ 雷雲と共にUSS静岡搬入の最終夜へ向けて出発していきました‼︎ #愛知豊橋#AichiToyohashi#愛知県豊橋市 #車輛荷役#車輛急送#車輛急行 #積載車#積車#キャリアカー#トレーラー #グラプロ#グランドプロフィア#GRANDPROFIA#PROFIA #レンプロ#レンジャープロ#RANGERPRO #5台積み#7台積み#仕事車#ワーキングトラック #carcarrier#carriercarseat#rainbow#🇯🇵
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#uss静岡 #ishidashouten #7台積み #5台積み #profia
Sep 10, 2020 14:03
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A rainbow shines over the Colorado mountains near Buena Vista, Colorado.
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Sep 10, 2020 14:04
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#Keepitgreen einfach mal kneten lassen. So sieht es aus, wenn unser #Hamburger #Burger #Bun seine Teig-Massage erhält. Der perfekte Begleiter beim leckeren #Grillen #BBQ #Barbecue #Party Abend. #bunt #Rainbow #Brötchen #lecker #backen #break #tasty #food #foodporn #bakery #food #foodblogger #foodie #foodporn #tasty #handmade
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#foodie #bbq #tasty #break #hamburger