citation

This hashtag in French

Last updated 19w.

A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.

Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution.

Citations have several important purposes: to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding plagiarism), to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used.

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, because their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its advantages and disadvantages. Editors often specify the citation system to use.

Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.

A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item. Citations should supply detail to identify the item uniquely. Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, the arts, and the humanities. Regarding the use of citations in the scientific literature, some scholars also put forward "the right to refuse unwanted citations" in certain situations deemed inappropriate.

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:

Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.

Broadly speaking, there are two types of citation systems, the Vancouver system and parenthetical referencing. However, the Council of Science Editors (CSE) adds a third, the citation-name system.

The Vancouver system uses sequential numbers in the text, either bracketed or superscript or both.[citation needed] The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form.

For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like:

The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:

In a paper with a full bibliography, the shortened note might look like:

The bibliography entry, which is required with a shortened note, would look like this:

In the humanities, many authors also use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.

Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, has full or partial, in-text, citations enclosed in circular brackets and embedded in the paragraph.

An example of a parenthetical reference:

Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Other styles include a list of the citations, with complete bibliographical references, in an end section, sorted alphabetically by author. This section is often called "References", "Bibliography", "Works cited" or "Works consulted".

In-text references for online publications may differ from conventional parenthetical referencing. A full reference can be hidden, only displayed when wanted by the reader, in the form of a tooltip. This style makes citing easier and improves the reader's experience.

Superscripted numbers are inserted at the point of reference, just as in the citation‐sequence system, but the citations are numbered according to the order of cited works at the end of the paper or book; this list is often sorted alphabetically by author.[citation needed]

Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.

A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play.

The Citation Style Language (CSL) is an open XML-based language to describe the formatting of citations and bibliographies.

In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional footnotes (explanations or examples) is avoided. In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.

In their research on footnotes in scholarly journals in the field of communication, Michael Bugeja and Daniela V. Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life", that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.

Other experts have found that published replications do not have as many citations as original publications.

Another important issue is citation errors, which often occur due to carelessness on either the researcher or journal editor's part in the publication procedure. Experts have found that simple precautions, such as consulting the author of a cited source about proper citations, reduce the likelihood of citation errors and thus increase the quality of research.

Research suggests the impact of an article can be, partly, explained by superficial factors and not only by the scientific merits of an article. Field-dependent factors are usually listed as an issue to be tackled not only when comparison across disciplines are made, but also when different fields of research of one discipline are being compared. For example, in medicine, among other factors, the number of authors, the number of references, the article length, and the presence of a colon in the title influence the impact; while in sociology the number of references, the article length, and title length are among the factors.

Nature Index recognizes that citations remain a controversial and yet important metric for academics. They report five ways to increase citation counts: (1) watch the title length and punctuation; (2) release the results early as preprints; (3) avoid referring to a country in the title, abstract, or keywords; (4) link the article to supporting data in a repository; and (5) avoid hyphens in the titles of research articles.

Citation patterns are also known to be affected by unethical behavior of both the authors and journal staff. Such behavior is called impact factor boosting, and was reported to involve even the top-tier journals. Specifically the high-ranking journals of medical science, including The Lancet, JAMA and The New England Journal of Medicine, are thought to be associated with such behavior, with up to 30% of citations to these journals being generated by commissioned opinion articles. On the other hand, the phenomenon of citation cartels is rising. Citation cartels are defined as groups of authors that cite each other disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors who work on the same subject.

« Sa décision de vendredi c'est pour rappeler trois messages forts : qui est Raoul, qu'il reste le maître des horlo…
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In Oregon, possession of common street drugs will go from a misdemeanor to a citation. The offender can either pay…
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@Axeloix Et autant j'apprécierais la citation autant le copier coller sans mention relève pour moi de pratiques assez discutables...
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@EliotNe66244653 @RaymondHarvey @elmanuboy j'aimerais bien avoir la source de cette citation, j'ai cherché et j'ai…
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@SyaNmsis Ta citation et celle de Aymen je suis explosée, 2 monde à part 😭
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@Lolo_Zab Souvent c'est l'inspiration souvent c'est des bus sur d'autres réseaux sociaux . Ça c'est une citation
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RT @vodkashepard: Getting piled on by TERFs again. For all these dickheads with XX in their profile - It’s a hilarious thought that you cou…
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@ckolonko @ww2ghostsigns @ReassessHistory For years now I’ve seen manual scans I’ve put up being used by others and…
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@DidierMaisto Principe de l’inversion orwellienne poussée à son paroxysme. La citation d’Antonio Gramsci, bien qu’a…
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J’ai crus que t’allais m’appeler,j’ai crus que t’allai m’expliquer,j’ai crus que t’allais m’écrire,j’ai crus qu’à j…
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Attn @tedcruz this is an actual reference to the actual comic book (and movie) called Watchmen, complete with autho…
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Today we honor the life and ultimate sacrifice of: Clair Goodblood | Korean War | U.S. Army | Medal of Honor Recipi…
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Today we honor the life and ultimate sacrifice of: Gary I. Gordon | Somalia (Operation Restore Hope) | U.S. Army |…
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After a group of anti-vaccination protesters forced the temporary closure of the Dodger Stadium vaccination site, L…
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@stptsunaze @LeRKDZ @SucculentBud y a une citation à 200 likes je suis mort
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@emilymbender Flagging mis-citations where the citation says the cited paper says one thing, when it actually doesn…
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J'attend que la citation de kiks
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@lii_saa_lisa Merci bcp Lisa, j'apprécie la citation 😊🙏
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"Une #loi n'est #efficace que dans la mesure où elle est strictement appliquée." ~ Samuel Ferdinand-Lop #digilegal…
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RT @digilegal_ch: "Une #loi n'est #efficace que dans la mesure où elle est strictement appliquée." ~ Samuel Ferdinand-Lop #digilegal #droi…
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357. La mauvaise herbe est la souillure des champs ; la haine est la souillure de l’homme. Par conséquent, ce qui e…
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RT @ABC7: After a group of anti-vaccination protesters forced the temporary closure of the Dodger Stadium vaccination site, LAPD Chief Mich…
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Citation Needed*
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- Вы были за границей? - В Берлине, в Праге. – Вы ездили туда по служебным делам? – Я не ездил, я пешком. – В качес…
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@Laitila41 @mikeboyler @TrumpWarRoom @SenJohnBarrasso Not my reading of the American constitution or that of those…
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100eme citation
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Citation du soir : "Je sais trop que nous vivons dans un siècle où l’on ne prend au sérieux que les imbéciles et je…
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RT @franckledorze: Citation du soir : "Je sais trop que nous vivons dans un siècle où l’on ne prend au sérieux que les imbéciles et je vis…
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Avec de la saucisse faite sur place . . . Aimez-vous la madère ? ——————— - Bon appétit - ——————— Cuisine de…
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Le manque d’une personne c’est vraiment insupportable 🥵
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RT @franckledorze: Citation du jour : "Les aliments mal revenus font les repas mal partis." Pierre Dac #alimentation #cuisine #repas #reven…
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RT @thunder_rollin: " S'il n'y avait pas de science, combien d'entre nous pourraient profiter de leur cancer pendant plus de cinq ans. " -…
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RT @armeedeterre: #JeudiPhoto "Délaisse les grandes routes, prends les sentiers." Que vous inspire cette citation de Pythagore 🧐 ? #ÀLaHau…
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『亀裂が入って脆くなった小窓はおよそ9.8×10^4Paもの圧力で吹っ飛び...』
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RT @riz_888: #ISPstandWithKashmir Solidarity rallies are held in Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir and by some members of the Mirpuri dias…
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@indica Citation
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RT @Scothwe19187188: Livraison & expédition 💯✅ 🚨👉Snapchat:scoth_weed @4Tchat #paris #Paris11 #Paris2024 #Paris20 #C…
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28. Quand l’homme sagace rejette la nonchalance à l’aide du mental sain, ce sage sans chagrin monte au palais de sa…
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RT @Scothwe19187188: Livraison & expédition 💯✅ 🚨👉Snapchat:scoth_weed @4Tchat #paris #Paris11 #Paris2024 #Paris20 #C…
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Citation du mois😁 #citation #citationdumois #positivevibes #positiveattitude #positiveimpact #positivity #quotes…
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"Truth and clarity are complementary" - Niels Bohr. #AcademicChatter #AcademicTwitter, what's your point of view a…
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“Ce qu'on appelle le beau n'est d'ordinaire qu'une sublimation des réalités de la vie.” Junichirô Tanizaki #citation #junichirôtanizaki
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最近コナンの学習漫画が増えつつあるのを知って、ドラえもんの後継のポジションを獲得しつつあるのかなぁ... などと思ったり
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Citation: Thanks to machine learning, the future of catalyst research is now retrieved…
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RT @armeedeterre: #JeudiPhoto "Délaisse les grandes routes, prends les sentiers." Que vous inspire cette citation de Pythagore 🧐 ? #ÀLaHau…
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3. Give credits Acknowledge the original author in the in-text citation and reference list
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#ZBHistory: Cpl Freddie Stowers was a squad leader in C Company, 371st Infantry Regiment. On Sep 28, 1918 during th…
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Today we honor the life and legacy of: Nathan G. Gordon | World War II | U.S. Navy | Medal of Honor Recipient Read…
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RT @Keys_Snaps: Ça me gêne beaucoup qu'on reprenne cette phrase dite par pas mal de personnes noires et surtout de FEMMES NOIRES (dernièrem…
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@TomNdahiro Exactly, us yourself. You are number one. Read deeply your own words or citation. Ni iki utumva koko?
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RT @jyleo_62: "J'ai toujours été fier du talent que je possède pour tourner des phrases. Les mots sont à mon avis, qui n'est pas si humble,…
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RT @Keys_Snaps: Ça me gêne beaucoup qu'on reprenne cette phrase dite par pas mal de personnes noires et surtout de FEMMES NOIRES (dernièrem…
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@ezbreezybaby Citation needed
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RT @Keys_Snaps: Ça me gêne beaucoup qu'on reprenne cette phrase dite par pas mal de personnes noires et surtout de FEMMES NOIRES (dernièrem…
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RT @nc_vert: Une citation qui n'a pas pris une ride : Les journalistes ne croient pas les mensonges des hommes politiques, mais ils les rép…
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@GemmaSm23979244 @SabinaWalker18 @jarlathcoady @ifihadastick @BallouxFrancois @FatEmperor Citation?
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RT @aragon_jb: Tous les #covidosoumis au totalitarisme délirant (je sais, c'est un pléonasme...mais qui met bien les points sur les i) devr…
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@Amy_Siskind Citation needed.
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@LucyEckley And thank you for kindly correcting and completing my citation!
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RT @lucavisinelli: Citation request 100 years ago. I would have spammed the letterboxes
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RT @Keys_Snaps: Ça me gêne beaucoup qu'on reprenne cette phrase dite par pas mal de personnes noires et surtout de FEMMES NOIRES (dernièrem…
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@Citation_Dhamma 👅
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Es ce que aujourd'hui je devais mettre une robe au collège mais j'étais trop complexé alors j'ai mis un Jean ? Oui.
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«Fais ce que tu penses être bien, on te critiquera de toute façon» - Eleanor Rooosevelt #citation #citationdujour #proverbe #quote #frenchquote #pensées #phrases #french #français #lesbeauxproverbes
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10 citations pour une rentrée en douceur - Elle Active
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La porte - Inspirations pour réussir sa vie
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Citations et proverbes 2....Belles Citations - Frawsy
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19 sept. 2020 - En plus de mes rendez-vous et impératifs, j’aime noter de jolies phrases dans mon Bullet Journal. Voilà des idées de citations inspirantes à y écrire.
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Très belle citation de Socrate, il ne faut jamais rien lâché ! Affiche idéale pour être à fond et se motiver !
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citation Pinterest Ideas
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Jul 9, 2020 21:16
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Jul 9, 2020 21:16
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Jul 9, 2020 21:16
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Jul 9, 2020 21:17
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Jul 9, 2020 21:17
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Jul 9, 2020 21:17
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Jul 9, 2020 21:18
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